Author: Kelly E. Graf, Caroline V. Ketron, Michael R. Waters
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
As research continues on the earliest migration of modern humans into North and South America, the current state of knowledge about these first Americans is continually evolving. Especially with recent advances in human genomic studies, both of living populations and ancient skeletal remains, new light is being shed in the ongoing quest toward understanding the full complexity and timing of prehistoric migration patterns. Paleoamerican Odyssey collects thirty-one studies presented at the 2013 conference by the same name, hosted in Santa Fe, New Mexico, by the Center for the Study of the First Americans at Texas A&M University. Providing an up-to-date view of the current state of knowledge in paleoamerican studies, the research gathered in this volume, presented by leaders in the field, focuses especially on late Pleistocene Northeast Asia, Beringia, and North and South America, as well as dispersal routes, molecular genetics, and Clovis and pre-Clovis archaeology.
This book is a full-color study of over 500 pre-Clovis stone artifacts of Virginia. With the 22K-year date of the Cinmar bipoint in Virginia, there is ample evidence of artifact classes that are older than Clovis. Over 50 tool types are illustrated and discussed. Artifact single-site collections are documented. The book argues the differences between Holocene biface technology with the blade and core technology of the Pleistocene era. The requirements for identifying Pleistocene artifacts is presented, such as platforms, remaining cortex, and invasive retouch. They are presented in a tool model. Major stones, namely jasper, are discussed as a lithic determinism. The east coast distribution is presented for various tool types. Additionally, as a major focus, cross-Atlantic flake/blade identical tools from Europe are illustrated with Middle Atlantic artifacts. Artifact ergonomics, such as right-left handed tools, hypothetical tool center, are argued. Structural and functional axis are shown and described on how to identify them on tools. Overall, this book presents an initiating view of the archaeology needed to study Pleistocene era artifacts on the American east coast.
Across Atlantic Ice
Author: Dennis J. Stanford, Bruce A. Bradley
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Argues that the Solutrean culture of coastal Spain and the European Atlantic Shelf was the ancestral industry to the North American Clovis industry.
Author: John F. Hoffecker
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Modern Humans is a vivid account of the most recent—and perhaps the most important—phase of human evolution: the appearance of anatomically modern people (Homo sapiens) in Africa less than half a million years ago and their later spread throughout the world. Leaving no stone unturned, John F. Hoffecker demonstrates that Homo sapiens represents a “major transition” in the evolution of living systems in terms of fundamental changes in the role of non-genetic information. Modern Humans synthesizes recent findings from genetics (including the rapidly growing body of ancient DNA), the human fossil record, and archaeology relating to the African origin and global dispersal of anatomically modern people. Hoffecker places humans in the broad context of the evolution of life, emphasizing the critical role of genetic and non-genetic forms of information in living systems as well as how changes in the storage, transmission, and translation of information underlie major transitions in evolution. He also draws on information and complexity theory to explain the emergence of Homo sapiens in Africa several hundred thousand years ago and the rapid and unprecedented spread of our species into a variety of environments in Australia and Eurasia, including the Arctic and Beringia, beginning between 75,000 and 60,000 years ago. This magisterial work will appeal to all with an interest in the ever-fascinating field of human evolution.
Mobility and Ancient Society in Asia and the Americas contains contributions by leading international scholars concerning the character, timing, and geography of regional migrations that led to the dispersal of human societies from Inner and northeast Asia to the New World in the Upper Pleistocene (ca. 20,000-15,000 years ago). This volume bridges scholarly traditions from Europe, Central Asia, and North and South America, bringing different perspectives into a common view. The book presents an international overview of an ongoing discussion that is relevant to the ancient history of both Eurasia and the Americas. The content of the chapters provides both geographic and conceptual coverage of main currents in contemporary scholarly research, including case studies from Inner Asia (Kazakhstan), southwest Siberia, northeast Siberia, and North and South America. The chapters consider the trajectories, ecology, and social dynamics of ancient mobility, communication, and adaptation in both Eurasia and the Americas, using diverse methodologies of data recovery ranging from archaeology, historical linguistics, ancient DNA, human osteology, and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction. Although methodologically diverse, the chapters are each broadly synthetic in nature and present current scholarly views of when, and in which ways, societies from northeast Asia ultimately spread eastward (and southward) into North and South America, and how we might reconstruct the cultures and adaptations related to Paleolithic groups. Ultimately, this book provides a unique synthetic perspective that bridges Asia and the Americas and brings the ancient evidence from both sides of the Bering Strait into common focus.
Author: Robson Bonnichsen, Bradley T. Lepper, Dennis Stanford, Michael R. Waters
Publisher: Texas A & M University Press
Paleoamerican Origins: Beyond Clovis presents 23 up-to-date syntheses of important topics surrounding the debate over the initial prehistoric colonization of the Americas. These papers are written by some of the foremost authorities who are on the trail of the first Americans. The papers are written by some of the foremost authorities who are on the trail of the first Americans. The papers in this volume include a discussion of the archaeological evidence for Clovis and Pre-Clovis sites in North America (11 papers) and South America (2 papers). In addition, papers on the genetic evidence (2 papers) and skeletal evidence (4 papers) provide insights into the origins of the first Americans. Additional papers include ideas on the changing perceptions of Paleoamerican prehistory, public policy and science, and a comprehensive concluding synthesis.
Bipoints Before Clovis
Author: Wm Jack Hranicky
This archaeological publication covers the development, definition, classification, and world-wide deployment of the lithic bipoint and includes numerous photographs, drawings, and maps. Lithic bipoint technology originated 75,000 years ago, and it continued to the discovery of metal for tools. It was brought into the U.S. on both coasts; the Pacific Coast introduction was around 17,000 years ago and the Atlantic Coast was 23,000 years ago. This book presents and discusses bipoints from nearly every U.S. state. Bipoint function, usage, and resharpening are also presented. The book is indexed and has extensive references.
Offers an updated perspective of human ecology and organization during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the Great Basin, 13,000-8,000 years ago, with special regard to whether these hunter-gatherers possessed a Paleoindian or Paleoarchaic lifeway.
Clovis Lithic Technology
Author: Michael R. Waters, Charlotte D. Pevny, David L. Carlson, Thomas A. Jennings
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
Some 13,000 years ago, humans were drawn repeatedly to a small valley in what is now Central Texas, near the banks of Buttermilk Creek. These early hunter-gatherers camped, collected stone, and shaped it into a variety of tools they needed to hunt game, process food, and subsist in the Texas wilderness. Their toolkit included bifaces, blades, and deadly spear points. Where they worked, they left thousands of pieces of debris, which have allowed archaeologists to reconstruct their methods of tool production. Along with the faunal material that was also discarded in their prehistoric campsite, these stone, or lithic, artifacts afford a glimpse of human life at the end of the last ice age during an era referred to as Clovis. The area where these people roamed and camped, called the Gault site, is one of the most important Clovis sites in North America. A decade ago a team from Texas A&M University excavated a single area of the site—formally named Excavation Area 8, but informally dubbed the Lindsey Pit—which features the densest concentration of Clovis artifacts and the clearest stratigraphy at the Gault site. Some 67,000 lithic artifacts were recovered during fieldwork, along with 5,700 pieces of faunal material. In a thorough synthesis of the evidence from this prehistoric “workshop,” Michael R. Waters and his coauthors provide the technical data needed to interpret and compare this site with other sites from the same period, illuminating the story of Clovis people in the Buttermilk Creek Valley.
The end of the Pleistocene era brought dramatic environmental changes to small bands of humans living in North America: changes that affected subsistence, mobility, demography, technology, and social relations. The transition they made from Paleoindian (Pleistocene) to Archaic (Early Holocene) societies represents the first major cultural shift that took place solely in the Americas. This event—which manifested in ways and at times much more varied than often supposed—set the stage for the unique developments of behavioral complexity that distinguish later Native American prehistoric societies. Using localized studies and broad regional syntheses, the contributors to this volume demonstrate the diversity of adaptations to the dynamic and changing environmental and cultural landscapes that occurred between the Pleistocene and early portion of the Holocene. The authors' research areas range from Northern Mexico to Alaska and across the continent to the American Northeast, synthesizing the copious available evidence from well-known and recent excavations.With its methodologically and geographically diverse approach, From the Pleistocene to the Holocene: Human Organization and Cultural Transformations in Prehistoric North America provides an overview of the present state of knowledge regarding this crucial transformative period in Native North America. It offers a large-scale synthesis of human adaptation, reflects the range of ideas and concepts in current archaeological theoretical approaches, and acts as a springboard for future explanations and models of prehistoric change.
The Hogeye Clovis Cache
Author: Michael R. Waters, Thomas A. Jennings
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
Roughly thirteen thousand years ago, Clovis hunters cached more than fifty projectile points, preforms, and knives at the toe of a gentle slope near present-day Elgin, Bastrop County, in central Texas. Over the next millennia, deposition buried the cache several meters below the surface. The entombed artifacts lay undisturbed until 2003. A circuitous path brought thirteen of the original thirty-seven Clovis bifaces and points through many hands before reaching the attention of Michael Waters at Texas A&M University. At the site of the original cache, Waters and coauthor Thomas A. Jennings conducted excavations, studied the geology, and dated the geological layers to reconstruct how the cache was buried. This book provides a well-illustrated, thoroughly analyzed description and discussion of the Hogeye Clovis cache, the projectile points and other artifacts from later occupations, and the geological context of the site, which has yielded evidence of multiple Paleoindian, Archaic, and Late Prehistoric occupations. The cache of tools and weapons at Hogeye, when combined with other sites, allows us to envision a snapshot of life at the end of the last Ice Age.
Author: Ashley M. Smallwood, Thomas A. Jennings
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
New research and the discovery of multiple archaeological sites predating the established age of Clovis (13,000 years ago) provide evidence that the Americas were first colonized at least one thousand to two thousand years before Clovis. These revelations indicate to researchers that the peopling of the Americas was perhaps a more complex process than previously thought. The Clovis culture remains the benchmark for chronological, technological, and adaptive comparisons in research on peopling of the Americas. In Clovis: On the Edge of a New Understanding, volume editors Ashley Smallwood and Thomas Jennings bring together the work of many researchers actively studying the Clovis complex. The contributing authors presented earlier versions of these chapters at the Clovis: Current Perspectives on Chronology, Technology, and Adaptations symposium held at the 2011 Society for American Archaeology meetings in Sacramento, California. In seventeen chapters, the researchers provide their current perspectives of the Clovis archaeological record as they address the question: What is and what is not Clovis?
Author: Bruce B. Huckell
Publisher: UNM Press
This collection of essays investigates caches of Clovis tools, many of which have only recently come to light. The studies comprising this volume treat methodological and theoretical issues including the recognition of Clovis caches, Clovis lithic technology, mobility, and land use.
The North American Arctic was one of the last regions on Earth to be settled by humans, due to its extreme climate, limited range of resources, and remoteness from populated areas. Despite these factors, it holds a complex and lengthy history relating to Inuit, Inupiat, Inuvialuit, Yup'ik and Aleut peoples and their ancestors. The artifacts, dwellings, and food remains of these ancient peoples are remarkably well-preserved due to cold temperatures and permafrost, allowing archaeologists to reconstruct their lifeways with great accuracy. Furthermore, the combination of modern Elders' traditional knowledge with the region's high resolution ethnographic record allows past peoples' lives to be reconstructed to a level simply not possible elsewhere. Combined, these factors yield an archaeological record of global significance--the Arctic provides ideal case studies relating to issues as diverse as the impacts of climate change on human societies, the complex process of interaction between indigenous peoples and Europeans, and the dynamic relationships between environment, economy, social organization, and ideology in hunter-gatherer societies. In the The Oxford Handbook of the Prehistoric Arctic, each arctic cultural tradition is described in detail, with up-to-date coverage of recent interpretations of all aspects of their lifeways. Additional chapters cover broad themes applicable to the full range of arctic cultures, such as trade, stone tool technology, ancient DNA research, and the relationship between archaeology and modern arctic communities. The resulting volume, written by the region's leading researchers, contains by far the most comprehensive coverage of arctic archaeology ever assembled. "