Author: Michael J. Kruger
Exploring the history of the New Testament text from a theological perspective, Michael Kruger helps Christians understand the facts behind their faith and the legitimacy of the New Testament Scriptures.
Author: Michael J. Kruger
Given the popular-level conversations on phenomena like the Gospel of Thomas and Bart Ehrman’s Misquoting Jesus, as well as the current gap in evangelical scholarship on the origins of the New Testament, Michael Kruger’s Canon Revisited meets a significant need for an up-to-date work on canon by addressing recent developments in the field. He presents an academically rigorous yet accessible study of the New Testament canon that looks deeper than the traditional surveys of councils and creeds, mining the text itself for direction in understanding what the original authors and audiences believed the canon to be. Canon Revisited provides an evangelical introduction to the New Testament canon that can be used in seminary and college classrooms, and read by pastors and educated lay leaders alike. In contrast to the prior volumes on canon, this volume distinguishes itself by placing a substantial focus on the theology of canon as the context within which the historical evidence is evaluated and assessed. Rather than simply discussing the history of canon—rehashing the Patristic data yet again—Kruger develops a strong theological framework for affirming and authenticating the canon as authoritative. In effect, this work successfully unites both the theology and the historical development of the canon, ultimately serving as a practical defense for the authority of the New Testament books.
Author: Michael J. Kruger
Given the popular-level conversations on phenomena like the Gospel of Thomas and Bart Ehrman's Misquoting Jesus, as well as the current gap in evangelical scholarship on the origins of the New Testament, Michael Kruger's Canon Revisited meets a significant need for an up-to-date work on canon by addressing recent developments in the field. He presents an academically rigorous yet accessible study of the New Testament canon that looks deeper than the traditional surveys of councils and creeds, mining the text itself for direction in understanding what the original authors and audiences believed the canon to be. Canon Revisited provides an evangelical introduction to the New Testament canon that can be used in seminary and college classrooms, and read by pastors and educated lay leaders alike. In contrast to the prior volumes on canon, this volume distinguishes itself by placing a substantial focus on the theology of canon as the context within which the historical evidence is evaluated and assessed. Rather than simply discussing the history of canon--rehashing the Patristic data yet again--Kruger develops a strong theological framework for affirming and authenticating the canon as authoritative. In effect, this work successfully unites both the theology and the historical development of the canon, ultimately serving as a practical defense for the authority of the New Testament books.
This new study of the Old Testament canon by Roger Beckwith is on a scale to match H. E. Ryle's classic work, which was first published in 1892. But Beckwith has the advantage of writing after the Qumran (and other) discoveries; and he has also made full use of all the available sources, including biblical manuscripts and rabbinical and patristic literature, taking into account the seldom studied Syriac material as well as the Greek and Latin material. The result of many years of study, this book is a major work of scholarship on a subject which has been neglected in recent times. It is both historical and theological, but Beckwith's first consideration has been to make a thorough and unprejudiced historical investigation. One of his most important concerns - and one that is crucial for all students of Judaism, and Christians in particular - is to decide when the limits of the Jewish canon were settled. In the answer to this question lies an important key to the teaching of Jesus and his apostles, and the resultant beliefs of the New Testament church. Furthermore, any answers to questions about the state of the canon in the New Testament period would help to open a way through the present ecumenical (and interfaith) impasse on the subject. With its meticulous research and evenhanded approach, this book is sure to become the starting point for study of the Old Testament canon in the years to come.
Beginning with Walter Bauer in 1934, the denial of clear orthodoxy in early Christianity has shaped and largely defined modern New Testament criticism, recently given new life through the work of spokesmen like Bart Ehrman. Spreading from academia into mainstream media, the suggestion that diversity of doctrine in the early church led to many competing orthodoxies is indicative of today's postmodern relativism. Authors Köstenberger and Kruger engage Ehrman and others in this polemic against a dogged adherence to popular ideals of diversity. Köstenberger and Kruger's accessible and careful scholarship not only counters the "Bauer Thesis" using its own terms, but also engages overlooked evidence from the New Testament. Their conclusions are drawn from analysis of the evidence of unity in the New Testament, the formation and closing of the canon, and the methodology and integrity of the recording and distribution of religious texts within the early church.
The Question of Canon
Author: Michael J. Kruger
Publisher: InterVarsity Press
2013 Preaching Survey of the Year's Best Books for Preachers Preaching's Preacher's Guide to the Best Bible Reference for 2014 (New Testament General) Did the New Testament canon arise naturally from within the early Christian faith? Were the books written as Scripture, or did they become Scripture by a decision of the second-century church? Why did early Christians have a canon at all? These are the types of questions that led Michael J. Kruger to pick apart modern scholarship s dominant view that the New Testament is a late creation of the church imposed on books originally written for another purpose. Calling into question this commonly held "extrinsic" view, Kruger here tackles the five most prevalent objections to the classic understanding of a quickly emerging, self-authenticating collection of authoritative scriptures. Already a noted author on the subject of the New Testament canon, Kruger addresses foundational and paradigmatic assumptions of the extrinsic model as he provides powerful rebuttals and further support for the classic, "intrinsic" view. This framework recognizes the canon as the product of internal forces evolving out of the historical essence of Christianity, not a development retroactively imposed by the church upon books written hundreds of years before. Unlike many books written on the emergence of the New Testament canon that ask "when?" or "how?" Kruger focuses this work on the "why?"—exposing weaknesses in the five major tenets of the extrinsic model as he goes. While The Question of Canon scrutinizes today s popular scholastic view, it also offers an alternative concept to lay a better empirical foundation for biblical canon studies.
An internationally respected biblical scholar investigates the origins of the Christian canon. John Barton explores the reasons behind the development of the New Testament and pursues the historical factors involved in combining these books with the Hebrew Scriptures.
Read the New Testament from a biblical-theological perspective. Featuring contributions from nine respected evangelical scholars, this volume introduces each New Testament book in the context of the whole canon of Scripture, helping anyone who teaches or studies the Bible to apply it to the church today.
Author: Lee Martin McDonald
Publisher: Westminster John Knox Press
The early Christian church had a variety of Scriptures and other source material that informed their faith and shaped their thinking. But after a few centuries the church decided to keep the twenty-seven books of our present New Testament and to treat them as a canonical in faith and practice. But what of the other books? Many of them have survived and remain valuable for understanding the diversity of the early Christian church and the astounding claims of faith on which it was founded. Learning about these ancient documents need not threaten the church's current orthodoxy and authority; in fact, learning about these texts can help today's Christians form a deeper understanding of the early church.
The Early Text of the New Testament aims to examine and assess from our earliest extant sources the most primitive state of the New Testament text now known. What sort of changes did scribes make to the text? What is the quality of the text now at our disposal? What can we learn about the nature of textual transmission in the earliest centuries? In addition to exploring the textual and scribal culture of early Christianity, this volume explores the textual evidence for all the sections of the New Testament. It also examines the evidence from the earliest translations of New Testament writings and the citations or allusions to New Testament texts in other early Christian writers.
"Lee McDonald has written a lucid and accessible account of the formation of the Christian Bible, clearly marshalling the major evidence, working through the main problems, and reaching persuasive conclusions. Treating separately the canons of the Old and New Testaments, he provides translations of most of the ancient primary sources, good summaries of scholarly debates, and a useful guide to the extensive scholarly literature on the subject. This book will find an appreciative readership among students, pastors, and inquiring laypersons." " Harry Gamble, Professor and Chair of Religious Studies, University of Virginia "This is a remarkable book in that it tackles the question of the formation of the Christian biblical canon in its full sense, that is, both testaments. . . . McDonald has produced a timely study, considerably improved in the sections of the OT canon and generally more comprehensive for both testaments than in his first edition, that should command wide attention for years to come. He has, in my opinion, come to the right conclusions on the essential questions." " James A. Sanders, Professor of Biblical and Intertestamental Studies, School of Theology at Claremont
Author: Wayne Grudem, C. John Collins, Thomas R. Schreiner
Originally featured as articles in the ESV Study Bible, these eighteen essays have been repurposed and republished in a convenient format. Covering a diverse range of essential subjects, including how to read the Bible well and why it is reliable, the essays delve into specific topics such as world religions, canon, and archaeology. Useful as both a general overview of the Bible and as a tool for more specific reference and training, readers of this book will grow in their understanding of Scripture and their ability to apply the Bible to their lives. Pastors, lay leaders, students, and other Christians engaged in studying God’s Word will benefit from this collection, written by notable contributors, including J. I. Packer, John Piper, David Powlison, and Vern Poythress.
Challenges to the reliability of Scripture are perennial and have frequently been addressed. However, some of these challenges are noticeably more common today, and the topic is currently of particular interest among evangelicals. In this volume, highly regarded biblical scholar Craig Blomberg offers an accessible and nuanced argument for the Bible's reliability in response to the extreme views about Scripture and its authority articulated by both sides of the debate. He believes that a careful analysis of the relevant evidence shows we have reason to be more confident in the Bible than ever before. As he traces his own academic and spiritual journey, Blomberg sketches out the case for confidence in the Bible in spite of various challenges to the trustworthiness of Scripture, offering a positive, informed, and defensible approach.
How and why did the early Church come to regard certain gospels, epistles, and other books as authoritative Scripture? What considerations dictated the present sequence of the books in the New Testament? Dr Metzger takes up such questions and considers whether the canon is a collection of authoritative books or an authoritative collection of books.