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Benford's Law

Benford's Law

Author: Mark Nigrini
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118286863
Pages: 320
Year: 2012-03-09
A powerful new tool for all forensic accountants, or anyone who analyzes data that may have been altered Benford's Law gives the expected patterns of the digits in the numbers in tabulated data such as town and city populations or Madoff's fictitious portfolio returns. Those digits, in unaltered data, will not occur in equal proportions; there is a large bias towards the lower digits, so much so that nearly one-half of all numbers are expected to start with the digits 1 or 2. These patterns were originally discovered by physicist Frank Benford in the early 1930s, and have since been found to apply to all tabulated data. Mark J. Nigrini has been a pioneer in applying Benford's Law to auditing and forensic accounting, even before his groundbreaking 1999 Journal of Accountancy article introducing this useful tool to the accounting world. In Benford's Law, Nigrini shows the widespread applicability of Benford's Law and its practical uses to detect fraud, errors, and other anomalies. Explores primary, associated, and advanced tests, all described with data sets that include corporate payments data and election data Includes ten fraud detection studies, including vendor fraud, payroll fraud, due diligence when purchasing a business, and tax evasion Covers financial statement fraud, with data from Enron, AIG, and companies that were the target of hedge fund short sales Looks at how to detect Ponzi schemes, including data on Madoff, Waxenberg, and more Examines many other applications, from the Clinton tax returns and the charitable gifts of Lehman Brothers to tax evasion and number invention Benford's Law has 250 figures and uses 50 interesting authentic and fraudulent real-world data sets to explain both theory and practice, and concludes with an agenda and directions for future research. The companion website adds additional information and resources.
Forensic Analytics

Forensic Analytics

Author: Mark Nigrini
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118087631
Pages: 480
Year: 2011-05-12
Discover how to detect fraud, biases, or errors in your data using Access or Excel With over 300 images, Forensic Analytics reviews and shows how twenty substantive and rigorous tests can be used to detect fraud, errors, estimates, or biases in your data. For each test, the original data is shown with the steps needed to get to the final result. The tests range from high-level data overviews to assess the reasonableness of data, to highly focused tests that give small samples of highly suspicious transactions. These tests are relevant to your organization, whether small or large, for profit, nonprofit, or government-related. Demonstrates how to use Access, Excel, and PowerPoint in a forensic setting Explores use of statistical techniques such as Benford's Law, descriptive statistics, correlation, and time-series analysis to detect fraud and errors Discusses the detection of financial statement fraud using various statistical approaches Explains how to score locations, agents, customers, or employees for fraud risk Shows you how to become the data analytics expert in your organization Forensic Analytics shows how you can use Microsoft Access and Excel as your primary data interrogation tools to find exceptional, irregular, and anomalous records.
Benford's Law

Benford's Law

Author: Mark Nigrini
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118286863
Pages: 320
Year: 2012-03-09
A powerful new tool for all forensic accountants, or anyone who analyzes data that may have been altered Benford's Law gives the expected patterns of the digits in the numbers in tabulated data such as town and city populations or Madoff's fictitious portfolio returns. Those digits, in unaltered data, will not occur in equal proportions; there is a large bias towards the lower digits, so much so that nearly one-half of all numbers are expected to start with the digits 1 or 2. These patterns were originally discovered by physicist Frank Benford in the early 1930s, and have since been found to apply to all tabulated data. Mark J. Nigrini has been a pioneer in applying Benford's Law to auditing and forensic accounting, even before his groundbreaking 1999 Journal of Accountancy article introducing this useful tool to the accounting world. In Benford's Law, Nigrini shows the widespread applicability of Benford's Law and its practical uses to detect fraud, errors, and other anomalies. Explores primary, associated, and advanced tests, all described with data sets that include corporate payments data and election data Includes ten fraud detection studies, including vendor fraud, payroll fraud, due diligence when purchasing a business, and tax evasion Covers financial statement fraud, with data from Enron, AIG, and companies that were the target of hedge fund short sales Looks at how to detect Ponzi schemes, including data on Madoff, Waxenberg, and more Examines many other applications, from the Clinton tax returns and the charitable gifts of Lehman Brothers to tax evasion and number invention Benford's Law has 250 figures and uses 50 interesting authentic and fraudulent real-world data sets to explain both theory and practice, and concludes with an agenda and directions for future research. The companion website adds additional information and resources.
Using Analytics to Detect Possible Fraud

Using Analytics to Detect Possible Fraud

Author: Pamela S. Mantone
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118715985
Pages: 368
Year: 2013-07-16
Detailed tools and techniques for developing efficiency and effectiveness in forensic accounting Using Analytics to Detect Possible Fraud: Tools and Techniques is a practical overview of the first stage of forensic accounting, providing a common source of analytical techniques used for both efficiency and effectiveness in forensic accounting investigations. The book is written clearly so that those who do not have advanced mathematical skills will be able to understand the analytical tests and use the tests in a forensic accounting setting. It also includes case studies and visual techniques providing practical application of the analytical tests discussed. Shows how to develop both efficiency and effectiveness in forensic accounting Provides information in such a way that non-practitioners can easily understand Written in plain language: advanced mathematical skills are not required Features actual case studies using analytical tests Essential reading for every investor who wants to prevent financial fraud, Using Analytics to Detect Possible Fraud allows practitioners to focus on areas that require further investigative techniques and to unearth deceptive financial reporting before it's too late.
Fraud and Fraud Detection, + Website

Fraud and Fraud Detection, + Website

Author: Sunder Gee
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118779657
Pages: 352
Year: 2014-12-03
This book takes an advanced approach to fraud management, providing step-by-step guidance on automating detection and forensics using CaseWare's IDEA software. Readers will learn to use complex data analysis techniques, including automation scripts, allowing easier and more sensitive detection of anomalies that require further review. You will learn to: understand the different areas of fraud and their specific detection methods; identify anomalies and risk areas using computerized techniques; develop a step-by-step plan for detecting fraud through data analytics; utilize IDEA software to automate detection and identification procedures. The delineation of detection techniques for each type of fraud makes this book a must-have for students and new fraud prevention professionals, and the step-by-step guidance to automation and complex analytics will prove useful for even experienced examiners. --
Fraud Analytics

Fraud Analytics

Author: Delena D. Spann
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118282736
Pages: 176
Year: 2014-07-22
Proven guidance for expertly using analytics in fraud examinations, financial analysis, auditing and fraud prevention Fraud Analytics thoroughly reveals the elements of analysis that are used in today's fraud examinations, fraud investigations, and financial crime investigations. This valuable resource reviews the types of analysis that should be considered prior to beginning an investigation and explains how to optimally use data mining techniques to detect fraud. Packed with examples and sample cases illustrating pertinent concepts in practice, this book also explores the two major data analytics providers: ACL and IDEA. Looks at elements of analysis used in today's fraud examinations Reveals how to use data mining (fraud analytic) techniques to detect fraud Examines ACL and IDEA as indispensable tools for fraud detection Includes an abundance of sample cases and examples Written by Delena D Spann, Board of Regent (Emeritus) for the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE), who currently serves as Advisory Board Member of the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, Board Member of the Education Task Force of the Association of Certified Anti-Money Laundering Specialists ASIS International (Economic Crime Council) and Advisory Board Member of the Robert Morris University (School of Business), Fraud Analytics equips you with authoritative fraud analysis techniques you can put to use right away.
Financial Forensics Body of Knowledge

Financial Forensics Body of Knowledge

Author: Darrell D. Dorrell, Gregory A. Gadawski
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118218981
Pages: 704
Year: 2012-02-02
The definitive, must-have guide for the forensic accounting professional Financial Forensics Body of Knowledge is the unique, innovative, and definitive guide and technical reference work for the financial forensics and/or forensic accounting professional, including nearly 300 forensic tools, techniques, methods and methodologies apply to virtually all civil, criminal and dispute matters. Many of the tools have never before been published. It defines the profession: "The Art & Science of Investigating People & Money." It defines Forensic Operators: "…financial forensics-capable personnel… possess unique and specific skills, knowledge, experience, education, training, and integrity to function in the financial forensics discipline." It defines why: "If you understand financial forensics you understand fraud, but not vice versa" by applying financial forensics to all aspects of the financial community. It contains a book-within-a-book Companion Section for financial valuation and litigation specialists. It defines foundational financial forensics/forensic accounting methodologies: FAIM, Forensic Accounting Investigation Methodology, ICE/SCORE, CICO, APD, forensic lexicology, and others. It contains a Reader Lookup Table that permits everyone in the financial community to immediately focus on the pertinent issues.
Fraud Analytics Using Descriptive, Predictive, and Social Network Techniques

Fraud Analytics Using Descriptive, Predictive, and Social Network Techniques

Author: Bart Baesens, Wouter Verbeke, Veronique Van Vlasselaer
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119133122
Pages: 400
Year: 2015-08-17
Detect fraud earlier to mitigate loss and prevent cascading damage Fraud Analytics Using Descriptive, Predictive, and Social Network Techniques is an authoritative guidebook for setting up a comprehensive fraud detection analytics solution. Early detection is a key factor in mitigating fraud damage, but it involves more specialized techniques than detecting fraud at the more advanced stages. This invaluable guide details both the theory and technical aspects of these techniques, and provides expert insight into streamlining implementation. Coverage includes data gathering, preprocessing, model building, and post–implementation, with comprehensive guidance on various learning techniques and the data types utilized by each. These techniques are effective for fraud detection across industry boundaries, including applications in insurance fraud, credit card fraud, anti–money laundering, healthcare fraud, telecommunications fraud, click fraud, tax evasion, and more, giving you a highly practical framework for fraud prevention. It is estimated that a typical organization loses about 5% of its revenue to fraud every year. More effective fraud detection is possible, and this book describes the various analytical techniques your organization must implement to put a stop to the revenue leak. Examine fraud patterns in historical data Utilize labeled, unlabeled, and networked data Detect fraud before the damage cascades Reduce losses, increase recovery, and tighten security The longer fraud is allowed to go on, the more harm it causes. It expands exponentially, sending ripples of damage throughout the organization, and becomes more and more complex to track, stop, and reverse. Fraud prevention relies on early and effective fraud detection, enabled by the techniques discussed here. Fraud Analytics Using Descriptive, Predictive, and Social Network Techniques helps you stop fraud in its tracks, and eliminate the opportunities for future occurrence.
Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them)

Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them)

Author: Phillip I. Good, James W. Hardin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118360117
Pages: 352
Year: 2012-06-07
Praise for Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them) "A very engaging and valuable book for all who use statistics in any setting." —CHOICE "Addresses popular mistakes often made in data collection and provides an indispensable guide to accurate statistical analysis and reporting. The authors' emphasis on careful practice, combined with a focus on the development of solutions, reveals the true value of statistics when applied correctly in any area of research." —MAA Reviews Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them), Fourth Edition provides a mathematically rigorous, yet readily accessible foundation in statistics for experienced readers as well as students learning to design and complete experiments, surveys, and clinical trials. Providing a consistent level of coherency throughout, the highly readable Fourth Edition focuses on debunking popular myths, analyzing common mistakes, and instructing readers on how to choose the appropriate statistical technique to address their specific task. The authors begin with an introduction to the main sources of error and provide techniques for avoiding them. Subsequent chapters outline key methods and practices for accurate analysis, reporting, and model building. The Fourth Edition features newly added topics, including: Baseline data Detecting fraud Linear regression versus linear behavior Case control studies Minimum reporting requirements Non-random samples The book concludes with a glossary that outlines key terms, and an extensive bibliography with several hundred citations directing readers to resources for further study. Presented in an easy-to-follow style, Common Errors in Statistics, Fourth Edition is an excellent book for students and professionals in industry, government, medicine, and the social sciences.
A.B.C.'s of Behavioral Forensics

A.B.C.'s of Behavioral Forensics

Author: Sridhar Ramamoorti, David E. Morrison, III, Joseph W. Koletar, Kelly R. Pope
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118417240
Pages: 304
Year: 2013-09-10
Get practical insights on the psychology of white-collar criminals—and how to outsmart them Understand how the psychologies of fraudsters and their victims interact as well as what makes auditors/investigators/regulators let down their guard. Learn about the psychology of fraud victims, including boards of directors and senior management, and what makes them want to believe fraudsters, and therefore making them particularly vulnerable to deception. Just as IT experts gave us computer forensics, we now have a uniquely qualified team immersed in psychology, sociology, psychiatry as well as accounting and auditing, introducing the emerging field of behavioral forensics to address the phenomenon of fraud. Ever wonder what makes a white-collar criminal tick? Why does she or he do what they do? For the first time ever, see the mind of the fraudster laid bare, including their sometimes twisted rationalizations; think like a crook to catch a crook! The A.B.C.'s of Behavioral Forensics takes you there, with expert advice from a diverse but highly specialized authoring team of professionals (three out of the four are Certified Fraud Examiners): a former accounting firm partner who has a PhD in psychology, a former FBI special agent who has been with investigative practices of two of the Big Four firms, an industrial psychiatrist who has worked closely with the C-level suite of large and small companies, and an accounting professor who has interviewed numerous convicted felons. Along with a fascinating exploration of what makes people fall for the common and not-so-common swindles, the book provides a sweeping characterization of the ecology of fraud using The A.B.C.'s of Behavioral Forensics paradigm: the bad Apple (rogue executive), the bad Bushel (groups that collude and behave like gangs), and the bad Crop (representing organization-wide or even societally-sanctioned cultures that are toxic and corrosive). The book will make you take a longer look when hiring new employees and offers a deeper more complex understanding of what happens in organizations and in their people. The A.B.C. model will also help those inside and outside organizations inoculate against fraud and make you reflect on instilling the core values of your organization among your people and create a culture of excellence and integrity that acts as a prophylactic against fraud. Ultimately, you will discover that, used wisely, behavioral methods trump solely economic incentives. With business fraud on the rise globally, The A.B.C.'s of Behavioral Forensics is the must-have book for investigators, auditors, the C-suite and risk management professionals, the boards of directors, regulators, and HR professionals. Examines the psychology of fraud in a practical way, relating it to aspects of fraud prevention, deterrence, detection, and remediation Helps you understand that trust violation—the essence of fraud—is a betrayal of behavioral assumptions about "trusted" people Explains how good people go bad and how otherwise honest people cross the line Underscores the importance of creating a culture of excellence and integrity that inoculates an organization from fraud risk (i.e., honest behavior pays, while dishonesty is frowned upon) Provides key takeaways on what to look for when hiring new employees and in your current employees, as well as creating and maintaining a culture of control consciousness Includes narrative accounts of interviews with convicted white-collar criminals, as well as interpretive insights and analysis of their rationalizations Furnishes ideas about how to enhance professional skepticism, how to resist fraudsters, how to see through their schemes, how to infuse internal controls with the people/behavioral element, and make them more effective in addressing behavioral/integrity risks Provides a solid foundation for training programs across the fraud risk management life cycle all the way from the discovery of fraud to its investigation as well as remediation (so the same fraud doesn't happen again) Enables auditors/investigators to engage in self-reflection and avoid cognitive and emotional biases and traps that lead to professional judgment errors (e.g., overconfidence, confirmation, self-deception, groupthink, halo effect, availability, speed-accuracy trade-off, etc.) Ever since the accounting scandals surrounding Enron and WorldCom surfaced, leading to the passage of the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002, as well as the continuing fall out from the Wall Street financial crisis precipitating the Dodd-Frank Act of 2010, fraud has been a leading concern for executives globally. If you thought you knew everything there was to know about financial fraud, think again. Get the real scoop with The A.B.C.'s of Behavioral Forensics.
Financial Statement Fraud Casebook

Financial Statement Fraud Casebook

Author: Joseph T. Wells
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118077067
Pages: 408
Year: 2011-05-12
A comprehensive look at financial statement fraud from the experts who actually investigated them This collection of revealing case studies sheds clear insights into the dark corners of financial statement fraud. Includes cases submitted by fraud examiners across industries and throughout the world Fascinating cases hand-picked and edited by Joseph T. Wells, the founder and Chairman of the world's leading anti-fraud organization ? the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) ? and author of Corporate Fraud Handbook Outlines how each fraud was engineered, how it was investigated and how the perpetrators were brought to justice Providing an insider's look at fraud, Financial Statement Fraud Casebook illuminates the combination of timing, teamwork and vision necessary to understand financial statement fraud and prevent it from happening in the first place.
The Handbook of Fraud Deterrence

The Handbook of Fraud Deterrence

Author: Harry Cendrowski, Louis W. Petro, James P. Martin, Adam A. Wadecki
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 047010743X
Pages: 450
Year: 2007-01-29
The Handbook of Fraud Deterrence encompasses the applicable professional standards and common applications for forensic accounting, fraud deterrence, and fraud investigation services. It is the first book that explains fraud deterrence through internal control improvement within the structure of forensic accounting procedures.
Cognitive Computing for Big Data Systems Over IoT

Cognitive Computing for Big Data Systems Over IoT

Author: Arun Kumar Sangaiah, Arunkumar Thangavelu, Venkatesan Meenakshi Sundaram
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319706888
Pages: 375
Year: 2017-12-30
This book brings a high level of fluidity to analytics and addresses recent trends, innovative ideas, challenges and cognitive computing solutions in big data and the Internet of Things (IoT). It explores domain knowledge, data science reasoning and cognitive methods in the context of the IoT, extending current data science approaches by incorporating insights from experts as well as a notion of artificial intelligence, and performing inferences on the knowledge The book provides a comprehensive overview of the constituent paradigms underlying cognitive computing methods, which illustrate the increased focus on big data in IoT problems as they evolve. It includes novel, in-depth fundamental research contributions from a methodological/application in data science accomplishing sustainable solution for the future perspective. Mainly focusing on the design of the best cognitive embedded data science technologies to process and analyze the large amount of data collected through the IoT, and aid better decision making, the book discusses adapting decision-making approaches under cognitive computing paradigms to demonstrate how the proposed procedures as well as big data and IoT problems can be handled in practice. This book is a valuable resource for scientists, professionals, researchers, and academicians dealing with the new challenges and advances in the specific areas of cognitive computing and data science approaches.
Handbook of Statistical Analysis and Data Mining Applications

Handbook of Statistical Analysis and Data Mining Applications

Author: Robert Nisbet, Gary Miner, Ken Yale
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0124166458
Pages: 822
Year: 2017-11-09
Handbook of Statistical Analysis and Data Mining Applications, Second Edition, is a comprehensive professional reference book that guides business analysts, scientists, engineers and researchers, both academic and industrial, through all stages of data analysis, model building and implementation. The handbook helps users discern technical and business problems, understand the strengths and weaknesses of modern data mining algorithms and employ the right statistical methods for practical application. This book is an ideal reference for users who want to address massive and complex datasets with novel statistical approaches and be able to objectively evaluate analyses and solutions. It has clear, intuitive explanations of the principles and tools for solving problems using modern analytic techniques and discusses their application to real problems in ways accessible and beneficial to practitioners across several areas—from science and engineering, to medicine, academia and commerce. Includes input by practitioners for practitioners Includes tutorials in numerous fields of study that provide step-by-step instruction on how to use supplied tools to build models Contains practical advice from successful real-world implementations Brings together, in a single resource, all the information a beginner needs to understand the tools and issues in data mining to build successful data mining solutions Features clear, intuitive explanations of novel analytical tools and techniques, and their practical applications
CALL communities and culture – short papers from EUROCALL 2016

CALL communities and culture – short papers from EUROCALL 2016

Author: Salomi Papadima-Sophocleous, Linda Bradley, Sylvie Thouësny
Publisher: Research-publishing.net
ISBN: 1908416432
Pages: 522
Year: 2016-12-18
The 23rd EUROCALL conference was organised by the Cyprus University of Technology Language Centre. The theme of the conference was “CALL communities and Culture”. Between the 24th and 27th August 2016, over 135 presentations were delivered and 27 posters were presented; 84 of these presentations appear in this volume of selected peer-reviewed short papers.